½ lb. wheatmeal flour (about 1 ½ cup), 2 oz. dripping, butter, or copha (3 oz. if desired), 1 small teaspoonful baking powder, ½ cup warm milk or water. Mix flour and baking powder through sifter, throwing in the coarse grains that will not go through, then add the shortening with fingertips until it looks like breadcrumbs. Add the warm milk or water, mix with a knife, turn on to floured board, knead and roll quarter-inch thick; it is now ready to put on the pie dish or plate. For apple or raisin pie put the apples, which should be slightly cooked and cooled, on to a layer of pastry and another layer of pastry on top (add cloves or cinnamon for flavoring). Brush over with milk or egg when putting in the oven. Have a hot oven ready and cook about 15 minutes, or longer if the apples have not been cooked before.